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by Jim Trelease
• Chapter One footnotes •
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These are the footnotes for a brief excerpt from the Introduction to
The Read-Aloud Handbook (Penguin, 2013, 6th edition).

Footnotes for CHAPTER ONE


  1. Richard C. Anderson, Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Judith A. Scott, and Ian A. G. Wilkinson, Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Commission on Reading, U. S. Department of Education (Champaign-Urbana, IL: Center for the Study of Reading, 1985), p. 23. Becoming a Nation of Readers is still in print. Copies can be obtained by contacting Brenda Reinhold at the University of Illinois-Champaign, College of Education, 217-244-4613, reinhold@illinois. edu. Cost: $7. 50, plus handling fee of $2. 50 and shipping.
  2. Ibid., p. 51.
  3. Keith E. Stanovich, “Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy,” Reading Research Quarterly 21, no. 4 (1986): 360– 407; Richard Anderson, Linda Fielding, and Paul Wilson, “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School,” Reading Research Quarterly 23, no. 3 (1988): 285– 303.
  4. The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2011 (NCES 2012– 457), Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, 2011), p. 2.
  5. See page 121 of book in paper or e-book.
  6. Jeanne S. Chall and Vicki A. Jacobs, “The Classic Study on Poor Children’s Fourth-Grade Slump,” American Educator 27, no. 1 (2003),
  7. Gordon Rattray Taylor, The Natural History of the Brain (New York: Dutton, 1979), pp. 59– 60.
  8. Stanovich, “Matthew Effects in Reading”; Anderson, Fielding, and Wilson, “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School”; Richard L. Allington, “Oral Reading,” in Handbook of Reading Research, P. David Pearson, ed. (New York: Longman, 1984), pp. 829– 64; Warwick B. Elley and Francis Mangubhai, “The Impact of Reading on Second Language Learning,” Research Quarterly 19, no. 1 (1983): 53– 67; Irwin Kirsch, John de Jong, Dominique LaFontaine, Joy McQueen, Juliette Mendelovits, and Christian Monseur, Reading for Change: Performance and Engagement Across Countries—Results from PISA 2000, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),; Foertsch, Reading In and Out of School.
  9. Betty Hart and Todd Risley, Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children (Baltimore, Brookes Publishing, 1996). For a downloadable six-page condensation of the book: Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley, “The Early Catastrophe: The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3,” American Educator (American Federation of Teachers), Spring 2003, This can be freely disseminated to parents, according to the AFT Web site. A follow-up study was released by researchers at Standford in 2013, this one showing the language gap appeared as early as age 24 months, Motoko Rich, "Language-Gap Study Bolsters a Push for Pre-K," New York Times, October 22, 2013, p. A1. See also Ginia Bellafante, “Before a Test, a Poverty of Words,” New York Times, October 7, 2012, p. MB; and Paul Chance, “Speaking of Differences,” Phi Delta Kappan, March 1997, pp. 506– 7.
  10. George Farkas and Kurt Beron, “Family Linguistic Culture and Social Reproduction: Verbal Skill from Parent to Child in the Preschool and School Years,” paper delivered March 31, 2001, to annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Washington, DC, Also Karen S. Peterson, “Moms’ Poor Vocabulary Hurts Kids’ Future,” USA Today, April 12, 2001.
  11. This is printed at the bottom of the article: “Articles may be reproduced for noncommercial personal or educational use only; additional permission is required for any other reprinting of the documents.” That entire spring issue is an easy-to-understand treasure of research on children’s language and reading comprehension, free for downloading at
Chapter one — p. 1  p. 2


Footnotes by chapter — 1   2   3   5   7   8   9

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